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Otizm Spektrum Bozukluklarında Melatonin ve Sirkadiyen Ritim

A. Selma YENEN, H. Tuna ÇAK
2020; 31(3): 201-211
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SUMMARY
Melatonin and Circadian Rhythm in Autism Spectrum Disorders

Objective: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are neurodevelopmental
disorders of early childhood which are characterized by limited
social-emotional reciprocity and restricted, repetitive patterns of
interest and behaviors. The pathophysiology of ASD has not been
fully elucidated. Dysregulation of circadian rhythm and melatonin
might play a role in ASD pathogenesis. This article aims to review the
relationship between melatonin, circadian rhythm and ASD in detail.
Method: Articles published in the PubMed database between 1990-
2019 were reviewed and prominent studies in the scope of the review
were included.
Results: Decreased melatonin levels were detected frequently in ASD
and melatonin replacement treatment for sleep disorders accompanying
ASD has given satisfactory results. Similarly, circadian rhythm
disorders were frequently reported in ASD, which might increase the
susceptibility to ASD through their effects on synaptic plasticity in the
early neurodevelopment. Mutations in the clock-controlled genes were
also common in ASD.
Conclusion: Further are required for understanding the relationship
between melatonin, circadian rhythm and ASD, which will not only
shed light on the role of melatonin in the etiology of ASD, but may also
guide to early intervention options.
 
Key Words: Melatonin, circadian rhythm, autism spectrum disorder, neurodevelopment, genetics, synaptic plasticity, neurobiology, sleep