Otizm Spektrum Bozukluğunda Bağırsak Mikrobiyotasının Rolü

2019; 30(3): 210-219
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The Role of Gut Microbiota in Autism Spectrum Disorder

Human microbiota are colonies of microorganisms located in different
parts of the human body with diverse functions. Healthy gut microbiota
comprises differing ratios of microoganisms wholly contributing to
metabolic and other molecular reactions in a healthy, functioning body.
After the demonstration of the bidirectional interaction between the
central nervous system and gut microbiota through neuroendocrine,
neuroimmune, and autonomic nervous mechanisms, investigations have
been started on the microbiota-gut-brain axis in psychiatric disorders.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which is a neurodevelopmental
disorder of early childhood, is one of these disorders. Most of such
studies were cross-sectional and mainly investigated the bacterial
species. Changes in gut microbiota composition and the leaky gut
syndrome are some of the hypotheses proposed to explain the core
symptoms and gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms of ASD. Probiotics,
prebiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, diet have been proposed as
treatment options. However, the role of microbiota in diagnosis, followup, and treatment is not yet clear. The bidirectional interaction between
central nervous system and intestinal microbiota makes it difficult to
establish the cause-effect relationship. The current data on microbiota
may be useful to plan patient-specific treatment in autistic children with
GI symptoms. This article aims to review the results of the studies on
microbiota in animal models and children and discuss the emerging
clinical relationship of ASD and gut microbiota.
Key Words: Microbiota, gut, autism spectrum disorder